Indium Oxidation Thermodynamics - University of Chicago

thermodynamics and kinetics of indium oxidation at various solder reflow environments that will ultimately provide a processing window for solder reflow and surface oxide cleaning. The stability of oxidation and reduction reactions for indium is presented in terms of several thermodynamic models. The influence of pO2, pH2O, pH2, pCO, pCO2 on the

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Non-thermal reduction of indium oxide and indium tin oxide ...

Non-thermal reduction of indium oxide and indium tin oxide by mechanochemical method. ... Substituting In 2 O 3 with indium tin oxide ... A non-thermal reduction of In 2 O 3 to In–metal by mechanochemical route to induce solid state reaction conducted under NH 3 and N 2 gas environments in the presence of Li 3 N was confirmed. 2.

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A view of aqueous electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction ...

The electroreduction of CO2 at heterogeneous indium electrodes in aqueous solution was analyzed by cyclic voltammetry. Bulk electrolyses showed that increased indium oxide presence prior to electrolysis improved the Faradaic efficiency of CO 2 reduction to formate in 0.5 M K2SO2 aqueous solutions at a pH of 4.4.

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Oxidation and Reduction Behavior of Pure Indium | Request PDF

With a glove box employed to generate reducing environments, oxygen, moisture, and hydrogen contents were varied to examine their effects on oxidation and reduction behavior of indium.

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Amorphous Indium-Zinc-Oxide Transparent Conductors for ...

indium oxide which is itself a good TCO but is challenging to deposit and crystallizes easily at 180 °C [5]. In contrast, a-IZO containing 20 40 at.% Zn does not crystallize – until 500 °C or higher [1].

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Indium as a cathodic material: catalytic reduction of ...

Indium as a cathodic material: catalytic reduction of formaldehyde S. OMANOVIC ... chemical reduction of FA on in situ prepared indium cathodes. Kinetic sets of the reaction pathway with ... acteristic of the processes of anodic indium oxide ®lm Fig. 2. Cyclic voltammogram of an indium electrode in (ÐÐ) Na-borate ...

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Effect of oxidation on the mechanical properties of liquid ...

Effect of oxidation on the mechanical properties of liquid gallium and eutectic gallium-indium ... of gallium and a eutectic gallium-indium alloy while controlling such oxidation ... Reduction of the oxide layer for gallium in rheometer measurements with an acid bath. (a) Time evolution of shear ...

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Indium tin oxide - Wikipedia

Indium tin oxide is one of the most widely used transparent conducting oxides because of its two main properties: ... Moreover, the nanoscale volume of the rods leads to a significant reduction in the amount of semiconductor material needed compared to a conventional cell.

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Electrochemistry of the Indium-Tin Oxide Electrode in 1 M ...

Electrochemistry of the Indium-Tin Oxide Electrode in 1 M NaOH Electrolyte Article (PDF Available) in Journal of The Electrochemical Society 152(9) · January 2005 with 1,705 Reads DOI: 10.1149/1 ...

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Effect of oxidation on the mechanical properties of liquid ...

Effect of oxidation on the mechanical properties of liquid gallium and eutectic gallium-indium Qin Xu, 1Nikolai Oudalov,2 Qiti Guo, Heinrich M. Jaeger,1 and Eric Brown1,3 1Department of Physics and James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illin, USA

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Indium(III) oxide - Wikipedia

Indium oxide is used in some types of batteries, thin film infrared reflectors transparent for visible light (hot mirrors), some optical coatings, and some antistatic coatings. In combination with tin dioxide, indium oxide forms indium tin oxide (also called tin doped indium oxide or ITO), a material used for transparent conductive coatings.

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Formation of a Passive Oxide Film on Indium Electrode in ...

Indium oxide is a n-type semiconductor and as such is used as resistive element in integrated circuits and to form hetero junctions with p-InP and other semiconductors. When indium oxide is doped with tin dioxide, thin films of indium-tin oxide (ITO) function as

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Reduction of Contact Resistivity between Al Alloy Layer ...

KEYWORDS: contact, resistivity, fluorine, plasma, aluminum, indium tin oxide Currently, there is a growing need for thin film transis-tor liquid-crystal displays (TFT-LCDs) of large size and high resolution, as the application range of TFT-LCDs becomes wider.1) The reduction of RC delay of the gate signal and

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Oxidation and reduction behavior of pure indium | Journal ...

A thermodynamic model of the oxidation and reduction behavior of indium is developed by constructing an Ellingham diagram, and by using H 2(g) reactions. Partial pressure (p) of H 2 O was shown to be the critical parameter in creating a reducing environment in the applicable solder reflow temperature range.

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Variable-Temperature Electrical Measurements of Zinc Oxide ...

3, and indium-tin oxide (ITO) were studied vs cation composition, state of reduction, and measurement temperature (over the range of 4. 340 K). Carrier contents and mobilities were determined from the Hall coefficient and conductivity in each case. In 2xSn xZn xO ä displays conductivities up to 1 order of magnitude lower than

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US9153596B2 - Adjacent wordline disturb reduction using ...

Prior art keywords oxide layer semiconductor device wordlines parallel Prior art date 23 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion.

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Reduction of the interfacial trap density of indium-oxide ...

where ϕ ms is the Fermi level difference between the metal and semiconductor, Q f is the fixed oxide charge, Q m is the mobile ionic charge and Q ot is the oxide trapped charge. If it is assumed that Q m is negligible, the charges trapped at the interface are observed as hysteresis in the C-V characteristics.

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Indium Tin [email protected] Core–Shell Nanowire and Jagged ...

indium metal in this product, which is because some indium tin oxides were reduced to indium by the reductive C 2H 2 gas. After further heat treatment of [email protected] at 700 C in air to oxidize indium and remove carbon over-layer, all peaks of the product could be perfectly indexed to cubic indium tin oxide (PDF 0416) [12].

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Electrochemistry of the Indium-Tin Oxide Electrode in 1 M ...

Electrochemical behavior of the bare indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode in 1 M NaOH electrolyte has been studied in a wide range of current density and applied charge in view of its possible ...

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Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction by Carbon-Coated Indium-Oxide ...

Indium-oxide (In 2 O 3) nanobelts coated by a nm-thick carbon layer provide an enhanced photocatalytic reduction of CO 2 to CO and CH 4, yielding CO and CH 4 evolution rates of 126.6 and 27.9 μmol h –1, respectively, with water as reductant and Pt as co-catalyst.

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Non-thermal reduction of indium oxide and indium tin oxide ...

A non-thermal process for reducing indium(III) oxide (In 2 O 3) and/or indium tin oxide (ITO) into indium–metal by milling with lithium nitride (Li 3 N) under (NH 3) or nitrogen (N 2) gas environment is proposed in this paper.

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Evaluation of Biofuel Cells with Hemoglobin as Cathodic ...

transfer (DET) of hemoglobin (Hb) molecules with an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrode and their electrocatalysis for reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this study, the ITO-coated glass plates or porous glasses were prepared by using a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method and examined the electrochemical characteristics of the formed

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Indium Oxide (In2O3) Nanoparticles - Properties, Applications

Indium oxide is an amphoteric oxide of indium. Indium oxide nanoparticles are graded as an irritant and could possibly causes skin and eye irritation, and allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled. Chemical Properties. The chemical properties of indium oxide nanoparticles are outlined in the following table.

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The electrochemical behavior of tin-doped indium oxide ...

The electrochemical behavior of tin-doped indium oxide during reduction in 0.3 M hydrochloric acid C.A. Huanga,*, K.C. Lia, G.C. Tub, W.S. Wangb a Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chang-Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan 333, China b Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, China

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Turning Indium Oxide into a Superior Electrocatalyst ...

Similarly, nitrogen-doped indium oxide (N-In 2 O 3) can be photocatalytically active for water splitting 13,14. More remarkably, the nitrate-type species in interstitial sites have been identified as an important role in the photoelectrochemical improvement of N-In 2 O 3 14 .

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Sputtering yields and surface chemical modification of tin ...

The improvement is explained by oxide reduction due to the reaction of hydrogen radicals with indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The effect of postannealing on the electrical properties confirmed that the improvement of the resistivity is a result of an increase in oxygen vacancies as the more » electron carrier source in the ITO film.

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Synergistic effects in silver–indium electrocatalysts for ...

The differences between silver and indium are stark, with the latter showing redox features at potentials more anodic/cathodic than −0.3 V vs. RHE ascribed to the formation/reduction of a thin indium oxide film respectively , .

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Reduction of Contact Resistivity between Al Alloy Layer ...

KEYWORDS: contact, resistivity, fluorine, plasma, aluminum, indium tin oxide Currently, there is a growing need for thin film transis-tor liquid-crystal displays (TFT-LCDs) of large size and high resolution, as the application range of TFT-LCDs becomes wider.1) The reduction of RC delay of the gate signal and

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The electrochemical behavior of tin-doped indium oxide ...

The electrochemical behavior of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) on SiO 2 in 0.3 M HCl was studied using voltammetric scanning method. The result showed that an obvious reduction current peak occurred during the first cathodic potential scanning. The reduction reaction became less active after annealing ITO at 500 8C for 1 h.

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Indium Lung Disease - PubMed Central (PMC)

 · Exposures to indium metal and indium compounds (including indium hydroxide [In(OH) 3], indium oxide, and ITO) may occur during ITO production, ITO use for the creation of thin films, and reclamation. The bulk of the ITO industry is located in Japan, with some activity in the United States, China, Taiwan, and South Korea. 3

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Indium Oxide as a Superior Catalyst for Methanol Synthesis ...

Indium Oxide as a Superior Catalyst for Methanol Synthesis by CO 2 Hydrogenation. Authors. Oliver Martin, ... Efficient nanomaterials for harvesting clean fuels from electrochemical and photoelectrochemical CO2 reduction, Sustainable Energy & Fuels, 2018 CrossRef; 5 Guoheng Yin, ...

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ITO, Tin-Doped Indium Oxide for Optical Coating - Materion

ITO, Tin-Doped Indium Oxide for Optical Coating Overview. Indium oxide doped with tin oxide, ITO, is used to make transparent conductive coatings. Thin film layers can be deposited by electron-beam evaporation or sputtering. Roll or web coating on polymer substrates is done by magnetron or other techniques of sputtering.

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Reduction of the interfacial trap density of indium-oxide ...

where ϕ ms is the Fermi level difference between the metal and semiconductor, Q f is the fixed oxide charge, Q m is the mobile ionic charge and Q ot is the oxide trapped charge. If it is assumed that Q m is negligible, the charges trapped at the interface are observed as hysteresis in the C-V characteristics.

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Reduction of defect formation in amorphous indium-gallium ...

EBSCOhost serves thousands of libraries with premium essays, articles and other content including Reduction of defect formation in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors by N2O plasma treatment. Get access to over 12 million other articles!

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Chemisorption on Powdery Indium Amalgams: Catalysis of the ...

The catalytic effect of indium oxide in the electro- chemical reduction of oxygen in basic media has been specified by electrochemical measurements. Experimental Gas porous electrodes were made with indium oxide. Two grams of indium oxide and 2g of powdered metal- lic indium were mixed and compressed in a cylindrical matrix.

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Rapid communication Work function measurements on …

Indium tin oxide (ITO) is demonstrate that it is possible to induce significant usually used as a high work function electrode since work function reduction by exposing ITO to the UV it combines good conductivity and transparency in light used in UPS measurements.

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Indium an efficient co-catalyst in novel Cu or Ni ...

Indium an efficient co-catalyst in novel Cu or Ni catalysts for selective reduction of biomass derived fatty acids to alcohols ... phosphide semiconductors and indium tin oxide films for liquid crystal displays (LCD) aroused much interest. By 1992, the thin film application had become the largest end use. ... and catalytic nitrate reduction is ...

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US5531948A - Process for the production of partially ...

The tin-containing component of a powder mixture includes SnO and is subjected to a mixing treatment with the In 2 O 3 before compaction to adjust the degree of reduction of the sputtering target in a simple and reproducible manner.

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Indium - Wikipedia

Indium tin oxide and indium phosphide harm the pulmonary and immune systems, predominantly through ionic indium, though hydrated indium oxide is more than forty times as toxic when injected, measured by the quantity of indium introduced.

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Reduction of defect formation in amorphous indium-gallium ...

Reduction of defect formation in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors by N2O plasma treatment Jhe-Ciou Jhu, Ting-Chang Chang, Geng-Wei Chang, Ya-Hsiang Tai, Wu-Wei Tsai, Wen-Jen Chiang, and Jing-Yi

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